Sporting Taiwan

Taiwan is located in East Asia, approximately 180 kilometers (112 miles) off the southeastern coast of mainland China. It is bordered by the East China Sea to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the west. Taiwan’s strategic location has made it a vital hub of trade and commerce in the Asia-Pacific region.



Taiwan has a subtropical climate, characterized by hot and humid summers, mild winters, and abundant rainfall throughout the year. The island experiences typhoons during the summer and early autumn months, bringing heavy rain and strong winds. The central mountain range acts as a barrier, dividing the island into a wetter eastern side and a drier western side.


Taiwan’s diverse ecosystems support a wide range of flora and fauna, including several endemic species found nowhere else in the world. The island is home to unique wildlife such as the Formosan black bear, Formosan rock macaque, Mikado pheasant, and Taiwan blue magpie. Its coastal waters are also rich in marine biodiversity, with coral reefs, sea turtles, and various fish species.

Longest Rivers

The longest river in Taiwan is the Zhuoshui River, which flows approximately 186 kilometers (116 miles) from its source in the central mountains to the western plains. Other major rivers include the Dajia River, Gaoping River, and Danshui River, all of which play important roles in irrigation, hydroelectric power generation, and water supply.

Highest Mountains

Taiwan is known for its rugged mountainous terrain, with more than 200 peaks exceeding 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) in elevation. The highest peak is Yu Shan (Jade Mountain), standing at 3,952 meters (12,966 feet) above sea level. Other notable mountains include Xueshan (Snow Mountain), Nanhu Mountain, and Yushan Range.



Taiwan has been inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years, with evidence of human settlement dating back to the Neolithic period. These early inhabitants, belonging to Austronesian ethnic groups, developed unique cultures and languages and relied on fishing, hunting, and agriculture for sustenance.

Colonial Period

In the 17th century, Taiwan was colonized by the Dutch and later the Spanish before coming under Chinese rule during the Qing Dynasty. The island’s strategic location attracted European traders and settlers, leading to the establishment of ports and trading posts along the coast.

Japanese Rule

Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 after the First Sino-Japanese War and remained under Japanese rule for more than five decades. During this period, Japan implemented modernization efforts, transforming Taiwan’s economy, infrastructure, and education system. However, the Japanese occupation also brought repression and exploitation, leading to widespread resentment among the Taiwanese population.

Post-World War II

After Japan’s defeat in World War II, Taiwan was returned to Chinese control under the Cairo Declaration and the Potsdam Declaration. However, the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) led to the retreat of the KMT to Taiwan in 1949. The ROC government established its capital in Taipei, maintaining its claim as the legitimate government of all of China.

Modern Era

Since the late 20th century, Taiwan has undergone rapid industrialization, economic development, and democratization. It has emerged as a global leader in technology, manufacturing, and trade, earning the nickname “Silicon Island” for its thriving semiconductor industry. Despite diplomatic challenges and tensions with mainland China, Taiwan has remained resilient, asserting its sovereignty and pursuing closer ties with the international community.


Taiwan has a population of approximately 23.5 million people, with a diverse mix of ethnicities and cultures. The majority of the population is Han Chinese, primarily of Hoklo (Hokkien), Hakka, and Mainland Chinese descent. Indigenous peoples, known as Taiwanese aborigines, make up a small but significant minority, comprising various tribes with distinct languages and traditions.

Administrative Divisions

Taiwan is divided into 22 counties (xian), 3 cities (shi), and 6 special municipalities (zhixia shi), each with its own local government and administrative structure. Here are the administrative divisions along with their respective populations:

  1. New Taipei City – Population: 4 million
  2. Kaohsiung City – Population: 2.8 million
  3. Taichung City – Population: 2.8 million
  4. Taipei City – Population: 2.7 million
  5. Taoyuan City – Population: 2.3 million
  6. Tainan City – Population: 1.9 million
  7. Yilan County – Population: 450,000
  8. Hsinchu County – Population: 600,000
  9. Miaoli County – Population: 560,000
  10. Changhua County – Population: 1.3 million
  11. Nantou County – Population: 520,000
  12. Yunlin County – Population: 680,000
  13. Chiayi County – Population: 510,000
  14. Pingtung County – Population: 820,000
  15. Taitung County – Population: 220,000
  16. Hualien County – Population: 340,000
  17. Penghu County – Population: 100,000
  18. Keelung City – Population: 370,000
  19. Hsinchu City – Population: 450,000
  20. Chiayi City – Population: 270,000
  21. Kinmen County – Population: 130,000
  22. Lienchiang County (Matsu) – Population: 10,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in Taiwan by population are:

  1. New Taipei City
  2. Kaohsiung City
  3. Taichung City
  4. Taipei City
  5. Taoyuan City
  6. Tainan City
  7. Hsinchu City
  8. Chiayi City
  9. Keelung City
  10. Chiayi City

Education Systems

Education in Taiwan is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 12, with a well-developed system of public and private schools. The country has a high literacy rate and places a strong emphasis on academic achievement. Taiwan is home to several top universities, including National Taiwan University, Tsing Hua University, and National Cheng Kung University, which are renowned for their research and academic excellence.



Taiwan has several major airports, including Taoyuan International Airport, Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport, Kaohsiung International Airport, and Taipei Songshan Airport. These airports serve as important gateways for domestic and international travel, connecting Taiwan with destinations around the world.


Taiwan has an extensive railway network operated by the Taiwan Railways Administration (TRA) and the Taiwan High Speed Rail (THSR) system. The total length of Taiwan’s railways is approximately 1,600 kilometers (994 miles), providing efficient and convenient transportation services for commuters and travelers.


Taiwan has a well-developed network of highways and expressways, connecting cities and towns across the island. The total length of Taiwan’s highways is approximately 3,500 kilometers (2,175 miles), with major routes including the National Highway 1 and National Highway 3.


Taiwan has several major ports, including Kaohsiung Port, Taichung Port, and Keelung Port, which serve as important hubs for maritime trade and transportation. These ports handle a significant volume of cargo and container traffic, facilitating the movement of goods to and from Taiwan.

Country Facts

  • Population: 23.5 million
  • Capital: Taipei
  • Languages: Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese Hokkien, Hakka
  • Religion: Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity
  • Ethnicity: Han Chinese, Taiwanese Aborigines
  • Currency: New Taiwan Dollar (TWD)
  • ISO Country Code: TW
  • International Calling Code: +886
  • Top-Level Domain: .tw